SAM system 2K12-ML (Kvadrat-ML)

Upgrade of Surface-to-Air-Missile (SAM) system 2K12M1 (2,3) (Kvadrat, Kub, SA-6 Gainful) up to the level of 2K12-ML “Kvadrat-ML” is performed to meet the following objectives:

  • Restore service life of the SAM to 15 years by replacement of 99% of old component base with the new one;
  • Increase combat capabilities through application of high performance computers, ability to conduct effective combat operations and destroy all classes of air targets in complex jamming environment;
  • Increase reliability up to 1500 hours of MTBF;
  • Reduce power consumption;
  • Reduce the crew;
  • Simplify SAM operation procedures.

Composition

  • Self-propelled reconnaissance and guidance radar 1S91-ML;
  • Self-propelled launcher 2P25-ML – 4 units;
  • Transporting-loading vehicle 2T7M – 2 sets;
  • Spare parts, tools and accessories kit.

Supporting systems:

  • Remote command and control post (RCCP);
  • Technical battery;
  • External power supply;
  • Radars P-18ML / MARS-L / PRV-16ML.
Detailed information
Benefits of upgrade of SAM system 2K12
  • Capability to detect and destroy low-flying targets, cruise missiles, including very low observable (VLO) (“stealth”);
  • Improved operation in jamming conditions, in presence of reflections from underlying surface;
  • Automation of control from Command Post, automation of detection and tracking, prelaunch preparation and launch of missiles, crew training;
  • Increase of engagement envelope and kill probability due to optimization of signal processing, increased detection and tracking range of low-flying targets;
  • Reduced response time and firing cycle;
  • New wire and audio telescope system for communications with superior command post;
  • Extended service life – up to 15 years.
  • Improved reliability and MTBF (1500 hours) due to new component base;
  • Improved survivability and control capabilities due to introduction of a specialized remote command and control post controlling SAM from up to 1000 meters (option);
  • Full crew training capability by simulation of air situation, jamming and action scenarios;
  • New built-in data recording system to evaluate crew actions and analyse combat results;
  • Standardized and modular configuration;
  • Notably simplified maintenance of system;
  • Reduced power consumption;
  • Improved ergonomics.
Performance characteristics of 2K12-ML
Parameter Before upgrade After upgrade
Engagement concurrency

1

1

SAM concurrency

(6) 12

12

1S11 Receiver noise ratio (at HF amplifier input):

 

 

  • Channel I

≤ 8.0 dB

≤ 3.5 dB

  • Channel II

≤ 8.0 dB

≤ 3.5 dB

1S31 Receiver noise ratio (at HF amplifier input)

≤ 8.0 dB

≤ 3.5 dB

Control signal suppression ratio in MTI mode (internal): 1S11M1, 1S31M1

≥ 28 dB

≥ 40 – 45 dB

Maximum detection range (tactical fighter):

 

 

  • At 7 km altitude

50 km

Not less than 75 km

  • At 0.2 km altitude

28 km

Not less than 38 km

  • At 0.1 km altitude

20 km

Not less than 28 km

Detection of a cruise missile at altitude of 0.2 km

-

Not less than 21 km

Maximum speed of engagement targets:

 

 

  • approaching

Up to 600 m/s

Up to 600 m/s

  • receding

Up to 300 m/s

Up to 300 m/s

Antenna rotation speed of 1S11M1

15 rpm

2 – 15 rpm

Search capability in a sector

-

yes

Engagement envelope:

 

 

  • minimal engagement altitude

0.025 km

0.025 km

  • maximum engagement altitude

14 km

14 km

  • minimum engagement range

3.4 km

3.4 km

  • maximum engagement slant range

24 km

24 km

  • maximum cross range of engaged targets

± 18 km

± 18 km

Single-shot kill probability of a target (Pk)

0.6 – 0.8

0.85

Target channel auto-tracking modes:

 

 

  • radar

yes

yes

  • TV/optical

-

yes

  • Thermal optical

-

option

Time to acquire target

10 – 15 s

3 – 6 s

Operating distance of 1S61M1-L equipment by radio and wire

Up to 500 m

Up to 1000 m

Accuracy of target designation to launchers:

 

 

  • By azimuth, not worse than

± 1.00

± 0.50

  • By elevation, not worse than

± 1.00

± 0.50

  • By range, not worse than

± 300 m

± 100 m

MTBF, not less than

55 h

1500 h

System readiness for combat from readiness No. 2

5 min

Not more than 5 min

Digital communications with Superior command post

-

yes

Remote command and control post

-

option

Recording of operational parameters

-

yes

Built-in simulation and training system (with overlaying of real terrain and air situation)

-

yes

Automatic topographic reference and alignment of system components at site of operation

-

yes

Interfacing with different types of radars (P-18ML, P-19ML)

-

yes

Automatic checking of SURN and TEL serviceability

-

yes

Automatic detection of active jamming with activation of protection

-

yes

Automatic processing and linking of target tracks by reconnaissance station

-

yes

Displaying of missile launch and engagement envelopes for selected targets on the indicator of reconnaissance station

-

yes

Displaying of terrain, air situation and friendly air-defence assets on the reconnaissance indicators

-

yes

Interfacing with ground interrogator

“Parol-4” only

option


Main characteristics